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TEN RHYTHMS Brief Descriptions

The Relevance of Rhythm: Why Drum?

Total Rhythm! 1. Zebola ("Zeb-oh-lah")
Country of Origin: Congo.

The Bangala people from Congo have, for centuries, used the Zebola rhythm for healing mind and body. Zebola is often played after a conflict between individuals in a community has been resolved, as a way to celebrate the return of harmony and wellness. Use this Zebola rhythm to put yourself into a healing state where mind, body and soul work together.

2. Salsa / Tumbao ("Toom-bow")
Country of Origin: Cuba

Salsa music is infectious! For decades, the Cuban people have created fantastic, original music to express the joy, exuberance, passion and love of life. This salsa rhythm enables you too to share in the creative flow of life and get connected to the beat! This tumbao rhythm is part of the Afro-Cuban "rumba" ("room-bah") folklore. Traditionally, there are three types of social rumba rhythms: Gauganco ("wow-won-ko"), Columbia ("ko-loom-bi-ah"), and Yamboo ("Yahm-boo"). Columbia is a very fast rhythm and dance showcasing male athleticism and bravado. Yamboo is a much slower, softer rhythm that demonstrates the subtlety and finesse of a male/female courtship dance. The gauganco's tempo lies somewhere in the middle. It's a courtship dance where the male is continually trying to vacanao ("vac-ooh-now", spanish for "vaccinate") the female, who warily covers up when needed.

The tumbao rhythm is the bottom rhythm (lowest pitch) played in the gauganco. (It is also one of the names for the lowest pitched conga drum.) While not a "salsa" rhythm in the music today, the influence of tumbao, rumba and Afro-Cuban music folklore on the development of salsa is undeniable. Enjoy the Tumbao rhythm and let it's creative energy inspire you!

3. Samba / Pagode ("Pah-GO-Jee")
Country of Origin: Brazil

Samba is sexy. For millions of Brazilians, the sway and beat of samba is an exciting expression of life in all it's vitality. Feel the excitement of just let-ting go as you play this vibrant samba beat.

Samba is perhaps the most widely-known and loved music and dance style from Brazil. The rhythm you are learning on this DVD is called "Pagode" ("Pah-GO-jee"). Pagode is one of many, many, many samba rhythms and refers to not only a rhythm but a gathering of people to play music, dance, eat good food and have fun. This pagode rhythm is played by the rebolo ("hey-bowl-oh") or tan-tan ("tahn-tahn") drum turned sideways and played on the lap. It's a typical beat played all over the backyards of Brazil.

Jump into the spirit and energy of this pagode rhythm from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil!

Recommended Recordings which feature the Pagode rhythm:
Grupo Fundo De Quintal: Bambas do Samba
Grupo Revelacao: Ao Vivo - Na Palma Da Mao
Zeca Pagodinho: Jeito Moleque
Leci Brandao: Somos da Mesma Tribo

4. Reggae
Country of Origin: Jamaica

The people of Jamaica use the rhythm of reggae for joy, relaxation, celebration and social expression. You too can use the power of the reggae rhythm to quickly and easily change your mindset and get into a nice and peaceful flow.

Jamaica is the birthplace of reggae, perhaps THE most popular rhythm in the world today. Reggae developed from Jamaica's rich musical and cultural legacy which includes mento, ska and rock steady. The Reggae rhythm has spread across the globe and can now be heard in the popular music of Brazil, Africa, India, England and the USA.

Feel the infectious Reggae rhythm and let your body move!

Recommended Reggae Recordings:
The Congos: Heart of the Congos
Israel Vibration: Strength of My Life
Bob Marley: Exodus
Olodum: Axe

5. Ijexa ("Eee-jay-shah")
Country of Origin: Brazil

In the Northeast of Brazil, the Ijexa ("Eee-jay-shah") rhythm literally overflows into the streets during the annual Carnaval celebration. Thousands of Brazilians play this rhythm, together, in a massive expression of unity and musical connection. You can experience this same magic! Ijexa rhythm originates from the Northeast of Brazil, from the state Bahia. An incredibly diverse country, Brazil has the largest Japanese population outside of Japan and the largest African population outside of Africa! Music brings Brazilians together and Ijexa is connected with the Candomble religion, a syncretization of Christianity and African spiritual beliefs.

Although typically played on a two-headed bell called an "agogo" ("ah-go-GO"), you will feel the beauty of IJEXA on two water glasses. Relax, take a deep breath, and take a big drink of the spirit of Brazil.

Recommended Recordings featuring the Ijexa rhythm:
Afro-Brasil: Compilation (Verve Records #845-326-2)
Axe Brazil: The Afro-Brazilian Music of Brazil (World Pacific Records #CDP-7-95057-2)

6. HipHop
Country of Origin: USA

With it's strong backbeat and funky syncopation, this hiphop rhythm is a great way to settle into a nice groove, relax your body and mind, and express yourself!

HipHop originated in the Bronx, New York, in the 1970's, part of the artistic movement that included breakdancing and tagging (graffiti art). The rhythms were created by turntablists (scratchers) who found a particularly danceable lick on an album and would then pull the record back again and again to replay that lick over and over. There are many, many hiphop beats and the one presented on this DVD is an extremely popular one, spreading across the globe as hiphop explodes on the world music scene.

7. Waltz
Country of Origin: Austria

From the German word walzen, to roll, turn or glide, the Waltz' three-quarter rhythm is a simple and easy way to tap into a relaxing, musi-cal state and start developing independence with your hands. The Waltz was originally a peasant dance from Austria and Bavaria. At first, high-society considered it vulgar because of it's closer handholds and rapid turning. The so-called dance masters at the time opposed it since it was very easy to learn, whereas the minuet and other court dances required considerable practice and training. Ultimately, how-ever, the popularity of the Waltz grew and it was embraced by high society, initially in France, and then spreading throughout Europe and to the US in the mid-1800's.

Enjoy the simple grace an elegance of the Waltz rhythm

8. New Orleans Funk
Country of Origin: USA

In New Orleans, people know how to party. In their yearly Mardi Gras, Jazz Festival, Heritage Festival and countless other musical gatherings, thousands come together in the streets to dance, sing, shout and let it all out. Colors, costumes, beads, brass bands and great food - all a part of the joyful New Orleans experience. This funk beat has been part of the party for decades and will help YOU release and let go. Come and join the party!

The New Orleans Funk rhythm presented here is called a "second line" rhythm. In the Crescent City, when a jazz great passed away, his or her life would be celebrated by a large jazz street parade. The "first line" of the parade were the musicians playing the unique New Orleans gumbo of jazz, funk, brass, dixieland and blues. The second line of the parade were the dancers! The rhythms that made them, along with the rest of the world, move were called "second line" rhythms.

The particular second line rhythm presented on this DVD is an famous beat which has influenced rock and roll music, Motown, James Brown, fusion and new brass funk.

9. Bellydance (Ayub) ("Ah-yoob")
Country of Origin: Turkey

Music and dance in the Middle East and Northern Africa are vital parts of an ancient spiritual culture. Drums and rhythm have been used for centuries to connect and communicate with the divine. You can use the power of this Ayub ("Ah-yoob") rhythm to help you slow down and find your center; to help you connect with your spiritual essence.

This traditional bellydance rhythm, called Ayub ("Ah-yooob") or Zar, is one of the most spiritually powerful rhythms in all of the Middle East. Ayub is most associated with trance dances of the dervishes, who whirl themselves into spiritual ecstasy to the incessant beat of the drum. The identical (in terms of notes played on the drum) Zar rhythm is played in Egypt and Northern Africa to drive away evil spirits. The steady beat of the Ayub/Zar rhythm is used today to accompany belly-dancing and is said to resemble the "sound of camels running."

10. Calypso ("Cah-lips-so")
Country of Origin: Trinidad & Tobago

Sweet, joyful calypso ("Cah-lips-so") music has helped generations of West Indians transcend challenges and difficult living conditions and tap into the power and beauty of rhythm. Calypso provides a vehicle for expression and an opportunity to tap into the natural flow of life. Trinidad and Tobago are sister islands comprising one country at the southern-most tip of Caribbean sea, only seven miles from the coast of Venezuela. Calypso music blends African rhythms with the music of French and Spanish troubadours. The rhythm presented on this DVD has been heard during Caribbean Carnival celebrations for nearly one hundred years.

The root of the word "calypso" can be traced back to the West African term "kaiso" ("cah-eee-so"), which was a style of social commentary music. The word "calyspo" in present-day Trinidad can mean many things: a musical style, a par-ticular song, a rhythm or group of interlocking rhythms played to support a particular song.

Trinidad was colonized, at various times in it's history, by the Spanish, Dutch, French and, ultimately, the British. Many early calypso songs were song in a French-Creole dialect known as patois ("pat-wah"). The first known calypso re-cording was in 1914 by the calypsonian Duke of Iron. By the late 1920's, Trinidad's capital, Port-of-Spain, was home to various appropriately named calypso "tents", actual tents which showcased established and aspiring calypsonians during the carnival season (the months preceding Lent). To this day, venues offering calypso talent are still called "tents" despite shedding the cloth and moving indoors.

Calypso reached international fame in 1944 when the Andrews Sisters (from America) recorded a cover version of "Rum and Coca-Cola", written by the famous calypsonian Lord Invader. (Most calypsonians adopt a stage name.)

Cross-over success came to American Harry Belafonte in 1956 when he released "Calypso", an album containing the famous "Banana Boat Song (Day-O)", a tune which incorrectly became known as the most famous calypso of all time (it was actually a Jamaican folk song).

In the 1960's, 70's and 80's, calypso was dominated by the Mighty Sparrow, Lord Kitchener, Black Stalin and Calypso Rose, one of the first successful female calypsonians.

Currently, calypso is alive and well in Trinidad. Popular calypsonians today include David Rudder, Chalkdust, Mighty Sparrow, Sugar Aloes, and Singing Sandra. These artists manage to combine the social commentary, humor, moral counsel, and double entendre, all on top of the dynamic calypso beat.

Enjoy this calypso beat, straight from Trinidad!

Total Rhythm! Recommended Calypso Recordings:
Lord Kitchener: Klassic Kitchener Vol. 3
David Rudder: Beloved
Mighty Sparrow: Vol. 1-4

Connect with the Beat!
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Short description of DRUMS used in 10 Rhythms DVD
Conga Drum - Tall, wooden hand drum with tuneable cow-skin head. Originated in Cuba (African origins).Conga

Djembe ("Jem-bay") - Large, hourglass-shaped wooden hand drum from West Africa with goat-skin head. Rope-tuned.Djembe

Bongos - Small, wooden, two-headed hand drum with tuneable goat skin heads. Played with fingers and held between the legs. Originated in Cuba.Bongos

Rebolo ("Hey-bowl-oh") - Medium-sized, cylindrical hand-drum with synthetic skin head. Played on itŐs side resting on the lap. Originated in Brazil.Rebolo

Dumbek ("Doom-beck") - Small, hourglass-shaped hand drum with natural or synthetic head, originated in the Middle East/Northern Africa. Played on itŐs side with the hand and fingers, resting on the lap.Dumbek

Banga ("Bahn-gah") - Medium-sized, rope-tuned cylindrical hand drum with natural goat skin head. Originated in Trinidad.Banga

Total Rhythm Drum - Adjustable-height wooden had drum with double goat skin head. Designed by The Drum Guy in the USA and used with the Total Rhythm Fitness Program.Total Rhythm Drum

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